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Developing Gellish enabled software

1. The Taxonomic Dictionary as a language defining ontology

The meaning of each Gellish expression, such as 'A <is located in> B' is primarily determined by the meaning of the kind of relation that classifies the relation between the related objects (A and B). The meaning is further determined by the meaning of the related objects. If the related objects are individual things, such as A and B in the example, then their meaning follows from their classification. This also follows from the Universal Semantic Patterns that indicate that there are classification relations required, such as A <is classified as a> city and B <is classified as a> country in order to relate those individual things to concepts (such as city and country) that are defined in the taxonomic dictionary. Application software that is expected to interpret expressions in a Gellish formal language should therefore import the Gellish Taxonomic Dictionary, at least including the base ontology section. Then the rules for interpretation can be build on the recognition of the (UIDs of) the kinds of relations and the taxonomy in which the classifiers of the related objects appear.

The collection of statements in the upper ontology (the expressions in base ontology section) defines the standard kinds of relations of Gellish. Those kinds of relations define the interpretation rules for the language. As the upper ontology is also expressed in Gellish, those rules are also the rules to interpret the language definition itself. To interpret the base ontology itself there are only a few standard kinds of relations required: they form the bootstrapping relation types. Those relation types are used to interpret each Gellish Expression, including the statements that are expressed in the base ontology itself.

1.1 Interpreting relations

Each kind of relation has a name and is defined by a <is a kind of> relation with its direct supertype kind of relation(s). On separate lines it is specified for each kind of relation that it has by definition two roles: a first role and a second role. For each role it is specified in another statement which kind of thing can fulfill such a role. Nearly each kind of relation is also denoted by a Gellish base phrase and an inverse Gellish phrase. Those phrases are natural language phrases that are synonyms for the name of the kind of relation, but extended with a reading direction of the expression. A base phrase corresponds with a first role player at the left hand side of the phrase (in English). The inverse phrase corresponds with a second role player at the right hand side of the phrase (in English). For example: the subtype-supertype relation (UID 1146) is called <specialization relation between kinds>. The base phrase is: <is a kind of>, which corresponds with a player of its first role (subtype) at its left hand side and a player of its second role (supertype) at its right hand side.

The definition of kinds of relations thus define which kinds of things may play the first and second kinds of roles. This implies that it can be verified by software whether something that is related by a kind of relation is allowed to play the role that it plays in such a relation. Such a semantic verification is only possible when related individual things are properly classified and when kinds are properly defined as subtype of their supertype(s) in the taxonomy. For example, the <is a kind of> relation requires that the left hand object as well as the right hand object is a kind. Because 'building' is defined in the dictionary as a kind, software can conclude that 'house' is also a kind. Thus the expression: “house <is a kind of> building” is a semantically correct Gellish expression according to the definition in the base ontology. A correct inverse expression will be “building <has as subtype> house”. This implies that house and building may not be used in expressions where they play a role as individual things.

Sometimes it is not specified for a kind of relation which kinds of roles it by definition has. In those cases the roles are inherited from the supertype of the kind of relation, because the kinds of relations are arranged in a subtype-supertype hierarchy. For that reason the roles of a kind of relation are subtypes of the roles of the supertype of the kind of relation. And also a role player of a particular role is a subtype of a role player of the supertype role of that particular role.

2. Certification of software

Software that is able to import and interpret Gellish expressions in a correct way and is also able to create and export correct Gellish expressions can be certified by the ! organization or an approved certifying authority.

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development_of_gellish_enabled_software.txt · Last modified: 2018/02/15 12:29 (external edit)